ceml.tfkeras¶
ceml.tfkeras.counterfactual¶

class
ceml.tfkeras.counterfactual.
TfCounterfactual
(model, **kwds)¶ Bases:
ceml.model.counterfactual.Counterfactual
Class for computing a counterfactual of a tensorflow model.
See parent class
ceml.model.counterfactual.Counterfactual
. Parameters
model (instance of
ceml.model.model.ModelWithLoss
) – The tensorflow model that is used for computing counterfactuals. The model has to be wrapped inside a class that is derived from theceml.model.model.ModelWithLoss
class. Raises
TypeError – If model is not an instance of
ceml.model.model.ModelWithLoss
.Exception – If eager execution is not enabled.

compute_counterfactual
(x, y_target, features_whitelist=None, regularization=None, C=1.0, optimizer='neldermead', optimizer_args=None, return_as_dict=True, done=None)¶ Computes a counterfactual of a given input x.
 Parameters
x (numpy.ndarray) – The input x whose prediction has to be explained.
y_target (int or float or a callable that returns True if a given prediction is accepted.) – The requested prediction of the counterfactual.
feature_whitelist (list(int), optional) –
List of feature indices (dimensions of the input space) that can be used when computing the counterfactual.
If feature_whitelist is None, all features can be used.
The default is None.
regularization (str or callable, optional) –
Regularizer of the counterfactual. Penalty for deviating from the original input x.
Supported values:
l1: Penalizes the absolute deviation.
l2: Penalizes the squared deviation.
You can use your own custom penalty function by setting regularization to a callable that can be called on a potential counterfactual and returns a scalar.
If regularization is None, no regularization is used.
The default is “l1”.
C (float or list(float), optional) –
The regularization strength. If C is a list, all values in C are tried and as soon as a counterfactual is found, this counterfactual is returned and no other values of C are tried.
C is ignored if no regularization is used (regularization=None).
The default is 1.0
optimizer (str or instance of
tf.train.Optimizer
, optional) –Name/Identifier of the optimizer that is used for computing the counterfactual. See
ceml.optim.optimizer.desc_to_optim()
for details.As an alternative, any optimizer from tensorflow can be used  optimizer must be an an instance of
tf.train.Optimizer
.The default is “neldermead”.
optimizer_args (dict, optional) –
Dictionary containing additional parameters for the optimization algorithm.
Supported parameters (keys):
tol: Tolerance for termination
max_iter: Maximum number of iterations
If optimizer_args is None or if some parameters are missing, default values are used.
The default is None.
return_as_dict (boolean, optional) –
If True, returns the counterfactual, its prediction and the needed changes to the input as dictionary. If False, the results are returned as a triple.
The default is True.
done (callable, optional) –
A callable that returns True if a counterfactual with a given output/prediction is accepted and False otherwise.
If done is None, the output/prediction of the counterfactual must match y_target exactly.
The default is None.
Note
In case of a regression it might not always be possible to achieve a given output/prediction exactly.
 Returns
A dictionary where the counterfactual is stored in ‘x_cf’, its prediction in ‘y_cf’ and the changes to the original input in ‘delta’.
(x_cf, y_cf, delta) : triple if return_as_dict is False
 Return type
dict or triple
 Raises
Exception – If no counterfactual was found.

ceml.tfkeras.counterfactual.
generate_counterfactual
(model, x, y_target, features_whitelist=None, regularization=None, C=1.0, optimizer='neldermead', optimizer_args=None, return_as_dict=True, done=None)¶ Computes a counterfactual of a given input x.
 Parameters
model (instance of
ceml.model.model.ModelWithLoss
) – The tensorflow model that is used for computing the counterfactual.x (numpy.ndarray) – The input x whose prediction has to be explained.
y_target (int or float or a callable that returns True if a given prediction is accepted.) – The requested prediction of the counterfactual.
feature_whitelist (list(int), optional) –
List of feature indices (dimensions of the input space) that can be used when computing the counterfactual.
If feature_whitelist is None, all features can be used.
The default is None.
regularization (str or callable, optional) –
Regularizer of the counterfactual. Penalty for deviating from the original input x.
Supported values:
l1: Penalizes the absolute deviation.
l2: Penalizes the squared deviation.
You can use your own custom penalty function by setting regularization to a callable that can be called on a potential counterfactual and returns a scalar.
If regularization is None, no regularization is used.
The default is “l1”.
C (float or list(float), optional) –
The regularization strength. If C is a list, all values in C are tried and as soon as a counterfactual is found, this counterfactual is returned and no other values of C are tried.
If no regularization is used (regularization=None), C is ignored.
The default is 1.0
optimizer (str or instance of
tf.train.Optimizer
, optional) –Name/Identifier of the optimizer that is used for computing the counterfactual. See
ceml.optim.optimizer.desc_to_optim()
for details.As an alternative, any optimizer from tensorflow can be used  optimizer must be an an instance of
tf.train.Optimizer
.The default is “neldermead”.
optimizer_args (dict, optional) –
Dictionary containing additional parameters for the optimization algorithm.
Supported parameters (keys):
tol: Tolerance for termination
max_iter: Maximum number of iterations
If optimizer_args is None or if some parameters are missing, default values are used.
The default is None.
return_as_dict (boolean, optional) –
If True, returns the counterfactual, its prediction and the needed changes to the input as dictionary. If False, the results are returned as a triple.
The default is True.
done (callable, optional) –
A callable that returns True if a counterfactual with a given output/prediction is accepted and False otherwise.
If done is None, the output/prediction of the counterfactual must match y_target exactly.
The default is None.
Note
In case of a regression it might not always be possible to achieve a given output/prediction exactly.
 Returns
A dictionary where the counterfactual is stored in ‘x_cf’, its prediction in ‘y_cf’ and the changes to the original input in ‘delta’.
(x_cf, y_cf, delta) : triple if return_as_dict is False
 Return type
dict or triple